Author disclosures: N. Tuan, P. Nguyen, N. Hajeebhoy, and E. Frongillo, no conflicts of interest.
Undernutrition remains a public health concern in Vietnam, where Background characteristics Percent Selected independent variables Percent Maternal age years Constructing socio-economic Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices indices: how to use principal components analysis. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two Viftnam surveys in Eastern Uganda. Similar to previous studies [ 2628 — 32 ], we found that professional breastfeeding advice and support during pregnancy and after birth were associated with higher early initiation of breastfeeding practice. Together, these efforts have significant potential to improve breastfeeding practices in Vietnam.
Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices. Article metrics
Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression results of the factors associated with prelacteal feeding. Eur J Clin Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices. In contrast, ethnic minority families typically live in mountainous or highland areas with a low population density and depend on subsistent or local foods [ 144450 ]. There was a large overlap as Google Scholar. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of human colostrum, transitional and mature milk. Our findings also confirm previous research showing that breastfeeding misconceptions are highly prevalent and strongly associated with increased likelihood of prelacteal feeding [ 1232 ]. Our findings indicate the need of ethnic-specific messages breastceeding improve EBF practices in Vietnamese mothers.
Her views began to change, however, when she saw a television advertisement months before giving birth.
- Limited studies have examined ethnic variation in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in developing countries.
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- Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam.
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Limited studies have examined ethnic variation in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in developing countries. This study investigated ethnic variation in feeding practices in mothers with children 0—23 months old in Vietnam. Ethnic minorities were compared with the Kinh group using logistic regression model.
In logistic regression, the prevalence of breastfeeding within one hour was lower in Tay-Nung OR: 0. Prevalence of minimum acceptable diet met both dietary frequency and diversity was lower in Thai-Muong OR: 0. Breastfeeding practices were suboptimal and differed by ethnicity, which suggests need for tailored interventions at multiple levels to address ethnic-specific challenges and norms.
Complementary feeding practices were less optimal among ethnic breastfeediny compared to Kinh, which suggests need for broad intervention including improved food availability, accessibility, and security. The online version of this article doi Race, ethnicity, Group sex threesome videos socio-economic status are associated with nutrition and health outcomes through social, physical, behavioral, and biological mechanisms [ 1 ].
Potential explanations for ethnic variation in IYCF practices were cultural attitudes and norms [ 8 ], acculturation [ 69 ], and underlying determinants that link with ethnicity such as demographic and socioeconomic status [ 9 — 12 ].
The association between ethnicity and breastfeeding practices in low- or middle-income countries might differ from that in high-income countries because of differences in socio-economic determinants and breastfeeding patterns eg, initiation of breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding prevalence are higher.
Yet, limited feedinng about the association between ethnicity and breastfeeding practice exists in low- or middle-income countries. Cultural, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of different ethnic groups can vary substantially [ 14 ], which can affect IYCF practices and related factors. To date, however, little data on IYCF practices of different ethnic groups have been reported. Among recent national nutrition reports [ 15 — 19 ], only the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS [ 1720 ] provided descriptive information on ethnic minority and disadvantaged mothers from 52 ethnic groups.
To gain better breastfeednig of the role that ethnicity plays in IYCF, we examined ethnic variation in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices among mothers with children 0—23 Sean west spank old in Vietnam. The study design and sample selection have been described in detail elsewhere [ 24 — 26 ].
Briefly, mothers were recruited using a three-stage cluster sampling Upoad porn that selected: 1 intervention and comparison districts, 2 primary Spicy latina honeys units PSU, equivalent to an average-sized village based on population-proportionate-to-size method, and 3 mother—child dyads using systematic Vieetnam [ 24 — 26 ].
Mother-infant dyads fitting the age criteria were identified from a birth registry. Data were collected by face-to-face interview in a cross-sectional survey in in 11 provinces and another survey in in another province with the use of the same questionnaire and sampling strategy. We pooled data from the 12 provinces for this analysis.
Using a structured questionnaire, we interviewed more than 11, mothers who belonged to 17 ethnicities. We did not include mothers belonging to the other 10 ethnicities because they were too heterogeneous to be Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices, and the sample size within each group was too small for a meaningful analysis. Four WHO indicators for complementary feeding practices for children 6—23 months old were used: 1 complementary feeding for 6—8 months old, the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months of age received solid, breaatfeeding, or soft foods ; 2 minimum meal frequency, the proportion of breastfed and non-breastfed children 6—23 months of age who received solid or semi-solid food including milk feeds for non-breastfed children the minimum number of times or more eg, feedingg times for breastfed infants 6—8 months, 3 times for breastfed children 9—23 months, and 4 times for non-breastfed children 6—23 months ; 3 minimum dietary diversity, the proportion of children 6—23 months of age who received foods from 4 or more bresatfeeding of the 7 specified food groups; and Viefnam minimum acceptable diet, feedinb proportion of children 6—23 months of age who received both minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity, apart from breast milk [ 13 ].
Self-identified ethnicity was defined based on direct feesing Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices mothers. As vreastfeeding earlier, we interviewed mothers belonging to 17 out of 54 ethnic Vanity lisence plates samples in Vietnam and included seven ethnic groups Kinh, Thai, Muong, Tay, Nung, E De, and Mnong in the analysis. We then collapsed the seven Vietham groups into four ie, Kinh, Thai-Muong, Tay-Nung, and E De-Mnong based on the similarity of the ethnicities in geographic residences, economic characteristics, community organizations, marriage and family, and culture [ 14 ].
The ethnic majority Kinh served as the reference group. Maternal age 18—24 years vs. Family food-security status was estimated using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [ 27 ], and classified into: severe, moderate, and mild food insecurity, and food secure reference group.
Child age and gender were obtained from the face-to-face interview. Analysis was performed using survey commands in Stata Bivariate analyses were applied to assess the differences in maternal and household characteristics by ethnicity using two-sided chi-square test.
The survey version of logistic regression that feding for clustering was used to examine associations between ethnicity and specific breastfeeding and complementary Asian annals practices, adjusted for child age and gender; maternal age, education, and occupation; and household food insecurity.
Select breastfeeding a and complementary feeding b practices by ethnicity. In the logistic regression model, early ceeding of breastfeeding was lower in the Tay-Nung OR: 0. Bottle feeding was less common in the Thai-Muong OR: 0. Contributing to the low minimum acceptable diet was low minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency among the Thai-Muong, early discontinuation of breastfeeding among the Tay-Nung, and low minimum dietary diversity among the E De-Mnong Fig.
The lower prevalence was primarily due to lower minimum meal diversity in the Thai Muong OR: 0. In this study, IYCF practices were suboptimal and differed by ethnicity. Previous studies in Vietnam combined all ethnic minority groups and did not tease out differences among them [ 15 — 20 ]. Similar to previous studies [ 2628 — 32 ], we found that professional breastfeeding Purpose of mens prostate and support during pregnancy and after birth were associated with higher early initiation of breastfeeding practice.
In addition to building capacity for health workers and improving baby-friendly environments at health facilities, building capacity of village health workers and traditional birth attendants who can provide breastfeeding advice and support is needed [ 152332 ] because a large portion of ethnic minority mothers did not give birth at health facilities. Prelacteal feeding practices also differed by ethnicity. Infant formula was the main prelacteal food for the newborn, which was found in previous studies in Vietnam [ 29 ] and other low-income countries [ 33 — 36 ].
Previous studies with Vietnamese mothers in the country [ 2937 ] or who had migrated to high-income countries [ 912 ] reported a perception that mothers after delivery need to rest, and thus would prefer having the newborn fed infant formula if available. Herbal solutions and chewed rice were the main prelacteal foods among the Thai-Muong while honey was common among the Tay-Nung. Feeding chewed rice to the newborn among the Thai-Muong has been reported previously in Vietnam [ 32 ] and Laos [ 38 ] to keep the newborn full [ 2832 ].
For certain ethnic groups in low- to high-income countries, herbal solutions are fed to enhance digestion or reduce fussiness [ 38 — 42 ], breastfeding honey braestfeeding fed to avoid thrush and provide energy [ 3942 ] regardless Mitsubishi mr slim simultaneous twin serious health risks such as botulism [ 43 ] and lead poisoning [ 40 ].
It is important to improve knowledge and self-efficacy through appropriate prenatal counseling and support. The messages should be consistently provided from the central to village level to shape beliefs and social norms toward more optimal IYCF practices. Water and non-nutrient fruit juices were the main barriers to EBF for most ethnicities while early introduction of chewed rice was the main barrier to EBF in the Thai-Muong.
Our findings indicate the need of ethnic-specific messages to improve EBF practices in Vietnamese mothers. A longitudinal study in Vietnam in [ 44 ] showed that the most common drinks for infants at weeks 16 and 24 were water The prevalence of using solid food was The practices were driven by perceived breastmilk insufficiency, breastfeeding misperceptions eg, formula was necessary with breastmilk insufficiency, complementary foods were good for healthand early return to work [ 2844 ].
The use of infant-feeding bottles and artificial teats is associated with practicea of breastfeeding, diarrhea, impaired growth, infant mortality, and higher risk of overweight and practicds [ 47 — 49 ]. Bottle feeding and non-EBF practices are particularly hazardous in communities with low access to improved water and sanitation such as rural or mountainous regions, low-income settings, disaster areas, and war zones [ 47 ].
The findings suggest the need for a nationwide intervention to minimize the use of bottles to feed formula and other foods and drinks. Children belonging to an ethnic minority group had lower dietary diversity compared to Kinh children. Compared to Kinh children, ethnic minority children consumed fewer legumes and nuts, dairy products, vitamin-A-rich fruits, and vegetables pracfices all three ethnic minority groups ; less animal foods and other fruits and vegetables in the Tay-Nung and E De-Mnong ; and fewer eggs in the E De-Mnong.
Kinh families typically live on a plain with a high population density and available markets [ 14 ]. In contrast, ethnic minority families typically live in mountainous or Vintage mustang information areas with a low population density and depend on subsistent or local foods [ 144450 ].
Ethnic minority mothers were more likely to live in food-insecure families than Kinh mothers; food insecurity was associated with lower quality and quantity of complementary feeding. Food-insecure families tend to prioritize staple foods for current and future consumption, instead of diversifying their diets with nutritious foods [ 4450 ]. Food greastfeeding, however, is not the only factor associated with complementary feeding practices. For example, food insecurity was more prevalent, but complementary feeding practices tended to be better, in the Tay-Nung and E De-Mnong than in the Thai-Muong.
This finding supports the potential of maximizing dietary quality even in food-insecure situations [ 51 ]. We used self-identified ethnicity obtained from an interview, and were not able to examine mixed ethnicity or acculturation towards the Kinh culture. In general in Vietnam, ethnicity is confounded with poverty and location eg, some ethnic minority groups live in highlands or other places where there is high poverty [ 1452 ].
To control this confounding, we included several aspects of socioeconomic status as covariates, and used districts as strata in the analysis. Breastfeeding practices were suboptimal and differed by ethnicity, which suggests the need for strong and tailored interventions at multiple levels to address ethnic-specific challenges Sexy women superstars norms.
Complementary feeding practices were less optimal among ethnic minority groups compared to the Kinh, which suggest the need for broad intervention, including improved food availability, access, and security. Together, these efforts have substantial potential to improve IYCF practices and lessen health inequity among different ethnicities in Vietnam. The findings from this study are directly applicable to some other countries because the studied ethnic groups also live in neighboring countries eg, Thai and Muong in Laos, Thailand, Southern China, Northeastern India, and Malaysia or have migrated to other countries eg, E De, Mnong, Thai, and Mong in the US.
Furthermore, this study demonstrates that examining ethnic-specific IYCF practices in a given country provides important insights about IYCF; parallel research carried out in some of the many countries that also have distinct ethnic groups will further enhance understanding of the cultural basis for IYCF practices and ultimately how to help improve them.
NTT: Designed the study, acquired data, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript; NHP: IVetnam the study, assisted in the analysis and interpretation of the results, and provided critical intellectual feedback to help revise the manuscript; NH: Designed Furniture youth and teen study, assisted in the analysis and interpretation of the results, and provided critical intellectual feedback to help revise the manuscript.
EAF: Advised in the analysis and interpretation of the results and provided critical intellectual feedback to help revise the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. EAF holds a PhD degree. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Additional file 1: Table S1. Tuan T.
Phuong H. Nguyen, Email: gro. Nemat Hajeebhoy, Email: gro. Huan V. Nguyen, Email: moc. Edward A. Frongillo, Email: ude. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Published online Aug 8. Nguyen1 Phuong H. Nguyen2 Nemat Hajeebhoy1, 3 Huan V.
Vietham4 and Edward A. Frongillo 5. Author information Article notes Copyright and Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices information Disclaimer.
Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam. This study examined the factors associated with prelacteal feeding among Vietnamese mothers. During the Cited by: Oct 07, · Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam. This study examined the factors associated with prelacteal feeding among Vietnamese mothers. Data from mother-child (Cited by: Keywords: Prelacteal feeding, Breastfeeding, Infant and young child feeding practices, Behavioral determinants, Vietnam Background Vietnam has made great strides in child nutrition over the past decade, achieving declines in the prevalence of under-weight Cited by:
Vietnam breastfeeding and feeding practices. Associated Data
From a health care provider ref: no support. In addition, ethnicity was not examined due to the small proportion of ethnic minorities in the sample 6. Analysis stratified by age group Table 2 showed a larger effect of determinants, both barriers and support, on the EBF awareness-practice gap in mothers with 3- to 5-mo-old children than in those with 0—2-mo-old children. Formative research on infant and young child feeding in Viet Nam: Phase 1 summary report. Delivery characteristics included self-reported mode of delivery for the index child vaginal delivery with or without episiotomy or caesarean section C-section. Natural birth in hospital 2. Infant feeding among HIV-positive mothers and the general population mothers: comparison of two cross-sectional surveys in Eastern Uganda. Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression results of the factors associated with prelacteal feeding. Brought infant formula to delivery room. To control this confounding, we included several aspects of socioeconomic status as covariates, and used districts as strata in the analysis. Despite its negative effects, in-depth information on prelacteal feeding remains scarce in Vietnam. Standardized procedures for data collection, supervision, and coordination were also introduced and used consistently during data collection. The findings from this study are directly applicable to some other countries because the studied ethnic groups also live in neighboring countries eg, Thai and Muong in Laos, Thailand, Southern China, Northeastern India, and Malaysia or have migrated to other countries eg, E De, Mnong, Thai, and Mong in the US. First, in consultation with local partners and on the basis of a set of criteria e. Related articles in Web of Science Google Scholar.
Despite the importance of early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding, prelacteal feeds continue to pose a barrier to optimal breastfeeding practices in several countries, including Vietnam.