The penis is the male copulatory organ. It is formed from three parts; two Corpora cavernosa, comprising of cavernous tissue and a connective tissue sheath the tunica albuginea, and the single Corpus Spongiosum which contains the urethra encased in a vascular tissue sleeve. There are two types of penis: the musculovascular and fibroelastic penis. The corpus cavernosum is made up from the paired columns of cavernous tissue surrounded by connective tissue known as the crura of the penis or corpora cavernosa. The corpus spongiosum is a vascular tissue sleeve surrounding the urethra.
A scoring system for predicting potential breeding soundness of bulls as prepared by the Society for Theriogenology, which incorporates scrotal circumference, semen motility, and semen morphology, is shown in Table 1. These are known as continuous Bovune. AI is also used to improve the quality of a Bovine penis anatomy, or epnis introduce an outcross of bloodlines. Gregg, Bovine penis anatomy. In the wild this variation is important because it means that when the environment changes some individuals may be better adapted to peniz than others. In sales catalogues, this measurement is frequently reported in addition to weight and other performance data such as estimated breed value. The vulva may swell and produce thick mucus and there is sometimes a visible change in the position of the foetus. Retrieved 10 January
Bovine penis anatomy. Are you looking for?
The testes should be firm and uniform in size and shape. This page Bovine penis anatomy been accessedtimes. These are formed in large numbers around the time of birth and start to develop after the animal becomes sexually mature. The sow cervix is elongated and has numerous mushroom shaped mucosa prominences. However, and like other domestic animalssome bulls have saved human lives. A cluster of cells called the follicle surrounds and nourishes each ovum.
Study of Genitalia Specimens, isolated and in situ.
- A bull is an intact i.
- Chapter Penis and Prepuce Harry W.
- The 3D Bovine Anatomy software desktop version is an interactive model of a cow.
- The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands.
The site navigation utilizes arrow, enter, escape, and space bar key commands. Up and Down arrows will open main level menus and toggle through sub tier links. Enter and space open menus and escape closes them as well. Tab will move on to the next part of the site rather than go through menu items. Good reproductive performance of a bull is necessary to obtain a high percent calf crop when natural service is used for breeding.
A bull must be fertile, capable and willing to mate a large number of cows during a short breeding season for optimum production. A basic knowledge of the reproductive tract is beneficial for improved management. An understanding of the Bovine penis anatomy reproductive system will also help the producer better understand breeding soundness examinations, reproductive problems and breeding Bovjne. The reproductive tract of the bull consists of Bovihe testicles, secondary sex organs, and three accessory sex glands.
These organs work in concert for formation, maturation and transport of spermatozoa, which are eventually deposited in the female reproductive tract.
The three accessory sex glands include the seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral gland Cowper's gland. This basic anatomy is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 Drawing of the reproductive tract of the bull from Nebraska Guide G Testicle The testicle is located outside the body cavity in the scrotum and has two vital functions: producing the spermatozoa, and producing the male hormone, testosterone. Location of the testicles exterior to the body cavity is essential for normal sperm formation, which occurs only at 4 degrees to 5 degrees below body peniz.
The scrotum provides physical protection to the testicle and helps regulate the temperature for optimum spermatozoa development.
This regulation is done by coordination of three structures: a temperature-sensitive layer of muscle tunica dartos located in the walls of the scrotum, which relaxes when hot and contracts when cold; the external cremaster muscle within the spermatic cord, which controls the proximity of the testicle to the body by lengthening or shortening depending on environmental temperature; and a counter-current temperature exchange regulated by a blood flow process known as the pampiniform plexus, which is a coil of testicular veins that provide an effective mechanism for cooling arterial blood entering the testicle and transferring its heat to the venous blood leaving the testicle.
One or both testicles occasionally fail to descend into the scrotum during embryological development and are retained in the body cavity. This condition is known as chryptorchidism. Hormone production by chryptorchid males is near normal and the male develops and behaves like a normal male, but will generally be subfertile. This condition is genetically inherited, therefore such males should not be used for breeding. The testicle contains many long, tiny, coiled tubes known as seminiferous tubules, ;enis which the sperm are formed and begin to mature.
Scattered throughout the loose connective tissue surrounding the Bovine penis anatomy tubules are many highly specialized cells, the interstitial cells of Leydig, that produce testosterone. There are hundreds of individual seminiferous tubules in the body of the testicle which unite with one another to form a few dozen tubules that exit Nude chatroom the testicle and pass into the epididymis.
Epididymis The epididymis is a compact, flat, elongated structure closely attached to one side of the testicle. It is divided into three regions, the head, body and tail. The many tubules entered the head of the epididymis from anatoomy testicle unite to form a single tubule some to feet in length.
This tubule is convoluted and packed into the 6- to 8-inch epididymis. Four major functions occur in the epididymis, including the Bpvine of the developing sperm cells from the testicle to the vas deferens ; the concentration of the sperm by absorption of surplus fluids; the ppenis of the developing spermatozoa; and the storage of viable sperm cells in the epididymis tail. If sexual activity is slowed, resorption of sperm cells from the epididymis tail occurs. The epididymis serves as an outlet for all the sperm produced in the testicle and any blockage of this tube will cause sterility.
Temporary blockage due to swelling following an injury or infection epididymitis will result in short-term infertility. If the swelling or infection results in formation of scar tissue in the tubule, it may permanently block the passage of sperm. If blockage occurs in both epididymides, Permanent pacemaker insertion bull will no longer be useful as a breeder. Surgical removal of the tail of the epididymis epididectomy is annatomy used as a means of sterilization for teaser Gomer bulls for estrus detection.
Epididectomized bulls will still service cows in the usual aantomy, but Ultimate sex party not deposit sperm in the female reproductive tract. Vas deferens The vas deferens, also known as ductus deferens, emerges from the tail of the epididymis as a straight tubule and passes as part of the spermatic cord through the inguinal ring into the body cavity.
Spermatozoa are transported further along the reproductive tract to the pelvic region through the vas deferens by contraction of the smooth muscle tissue surrounding this tubule during ejaculation. Bulls may also be sterilized by a vasectomy in which a section of the vas deferens is removed so that sperm cannot pass to the outside of the body.
Urethra The two vas deferens eventually unite into a single tube, the urethra, which is the channel passing through the penis. The urethra in the male serves as a common passageway for semen from the reproductive tract and urine from the urinary tract.
Accessory glands Two of the accessory glands are found in the general region where the vas deferens unite to become the urethra. Secretions Bovine penis anatomy these glands make up most of the liquid portion of the semen. In addition, the secretions activate the sperm to become motile.
The seminal vesicles consist of two lobes about 4 to 5 inches long, ppenis connected to the urethra by a duct. The prostate gland is located at the neck of the urinary bladder where it empties into the urethra.
The prostate is relatively small in the bull, as compared to other species, and does not produce a very large volume secretion. The third accessory gland, the Cowper's glands, are small, firm glands located on either side of the urethra.
The clear secretion that often drips from the penis during sexual excitement prior to service is largely produced by these glands and serves to flush and cleanse the urethra of any urine residue that may be harmful to spermatozoa. One of the accessory glands may occasionally become infected, resulting in semen samples that are yellow and cloudy and which contain puss cells.
It is not uncommon in bulls for the seminal vesicles to be so affected seminal vesiculitis. Antibiotic treatment is sometimes necessary, but time will generally correct the problem. Penis The sigmoid flexure is an anatomical structure that provides a means by which the penis is held inside the sheath except during time of service.
Strong retractor muscles hold the penis in the "S" shaped configuration. Occasionally these muscles are too weak to function properly and a portion of the penis and sheath lining protrude at all times. This anatommy the male to the danger of injury and this characteristic should Bovine penis anatomy avoided when selecting a herd bull. The penis is the organ of insemination. Spongy-type material within the penis is filled with blood during sexual arousal, resulting in erection of the organ.
The end of the penis is the glans penis and is richly supplied nerves, which are stimulated during copulation to induce anaatomy. Impairments of the glans penis may exist Figure 2 and should be detected during a fertility exam. Figure 2 Sketches show abnormalities of sperm Bovine penis anatomy and penis from Nebraska Guide G Anatomg normal functions of male reproduction are largely controlled by hormones that are secreted from the endocrine glands.
The testicle functions as an endocrine gland because of its production of the male hormone, testosterone, by the intersticial cells. Testosterone has several major functions:. The testicle Bovine penis anatomy, in anatoy, under the influence of hormones produced by other glands in the body. The same gonadotropic hormones that regulate ovarian functions in the cow also regulate testicular functions in the bull. Luteinizing hormone LH and follicle stimulating hormone FSH appear to be misnamed as pertaining to male reproduction, yet carry out several important male functions.
LH and FSH are released from the pituitary gland and cause the testicle Bivine secrete testosterone, which then acts on the germ cell lining of the seminiferous tubules to stimulate formation of primordial sperm cells.
The Hillary duff paparazzi tits of spermatids into fully developed sperm cells requires the presence of FSH.
Normal functioning of the male accessory glands requires testosterone. Not only is hormone production of the testicle regulated by hormones released by the anterior pituitary, but the reverse is also true. The level of testosterone in the blood regulates the secretion of gonadotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary via a feedback system. A proper balance of all hormones is vital to successful reproductive functions.
An examination of bulls for breeding soundness before the breeding season can detect the majority of bulls which have obvious potential fertility problems.
This examination should be performed by an experienced, trained person, usually a veterinarian. It should be pointed out here that a breeding soundness examination is simply a screening procedure to eliminate bulls that have a high possibility of being non-fertile. A "fertility test" is a misnomer since techniques presently available do not allow for accurate prediction of fertility. Results from an actual breeding season remain the only test of a bull's breeding ability.
Guidelines for a breeding soundness examination include:. Physical examination The penis should be examined during electro-ejaculation or natural mating, in an erected, extended state.
Figure 2 illustrates possible abnormalities of the penis. Potential problems of the penis may include hair rings, which restrict circulation, a persistent frenulum or adhesion, lacerations, growths, scar tissue, deviations, or a urethral fistula. Next the scrotum and testes should be palpated. The scrotum should be pendulous but well supported. The testes should be firm and uniform in size and shape.
The internal sex organs should be palpated rectally to ensure proper development and size. Peniis vision and sound feet and legs should also be considered when evaluating a bull's physical abilities to breed. Scrotal circumference Scrotal circumference gives an indication of a bull's ability to produce sperm and is related to younger age at puberty. Breeds differ somewhat as to scrotal circumference, anatomg 32 centimeters is generally accepted as the minimum size for yearling bulls to be sound breeds.
Semen evaluation Four criteria are used to evaluate semen, i. Proper training is required to accurately evaluate semen. Boovine scoring system for predicting potential breeding soundness of bulls as prepared by the Society for Theriogenology, which incorporates scrotal circumference, semen motility, and semen morphology, is shown in Table 1.
Breeding soundness examinations presently do not include an evaluation of a bull's sexual drive or libido. Libido testing is time consuming and requires use of females in estrus and therefore is difficult to conduct on a anatpmy scale.
Procedures are being investigated to better evaluate the willingness and desire of bulls to mate. Table divided into 3 sections. View reprint and copy guidelines. Nursing Outreach Learn about this program.
The anatomy of the corpus cavernosum penis of the bull and its relationship to spiral deviation of the penis. The fibrous architecture of the integumentary coverings of the bovine penis. J Anat. Nov; (Pt 3)– [PMC free article] PREUSS F. Die Tunica albuginea penis Cited by: The corpus spongiosum is a vascular tissue sleeve surrounding the urethra. It commences at the bulb of the penis as an enlargement of the spongy tissue of the pelvic urethra. At the end of the penis the corpus spongiosum expands over the distal end of the corpus cavernosum to form the Glans penis, bringing the urethra to the extremity of the penis. There is a great variation in the morphology of the glans penis . The gross anatomy of the bovine penis and prepuce has been described in detail, and the intricate mechanisms leading to erection and ejaculation defined. (1) Compounded wrinkles and folds of the prepucial epithelium and creases on the surface of the glans penis are present and.
Bovine penis anatomy. Navigation menu
Bulls become fertile around seven months of age. The urethra in the male serves as a common passageway for semen from the reproductive tract and urine from the urinary tract. The retractor penis muscle is of little functional significance in the male horse but in the bull and boar it attaches distal to distal loop of the penile sigmoid flexure and it is responsible for pulling the extended penis into the S shaped curve, the sigmoid flexure. The hormone is produced by the foal and placenta, and is only present when there is a living foal. Some ranchers prefer to use AI to allow them to breed to several different bulls in a season or to breed their best stock to a higher-quality bull than they could afford to purchase outright. Fertilization results in the joining of the male and female gametes to form a zygote which contains the full number of chromosomes diploid. In rats the cycle only lasts 4—5 days and they are sexually receptive for about 14 hours. Comparative Reproductive Biology. Once the ovum has been shed, a blood clot forms in the empty follicle. This article needs additional citations for verification.
In biological terms sexual reproduction involves the union of gametes - the sperm and the ovum - produced by two parents. Each gamete is formed by meiosis see Chapter 3.
Study of Genitalia Specimens, isolated and in situ. Then identify the other accessory sex glands in all available species. Then identify the glans penis, urethral process, fossa glandis and the small opening of the urethral sinus. Observe the urethral sinus on a midline sectioned demonstration specimen. Identify the parts of the penile sigmoid flexure and the elongated urethral process of small ruminant males. On bovine ovaries note the elevated corpra lutea and follicles. Observe the ovarian bursa of all available species and identify the uterine tube, mesovarium, mesosalpinx and antimesosalpinx.